Introduction to the World of Investing: Basic Principles and Terms

Published: 19.03.2024
Author: Роман Измайлов
Introduction to the World of Investing: Basic Principles and Terms
Views: 20931
Most Commented: 18

Investing is a vital aspect of personal finance management and wealth building. While it can seem daunting at first, understanding some basic principles and terms can help demystify the world of investing and empower individuals to make informed decisions about their financial future. Whether you're considering investing in stocks, bonds, real estate, or other assets, grasping these fundamentals will lay a solid foundation for your journey into the world of investing.

1. Risk and Return:

One of the fundamental principles of investing is the relationship between risk and return. Generally, higher returns come with higher risks. Investors must assess their risk tolerance, which is the degree of uncertainty an investor can handle regarding fluctuations in the value of their investments. A more risk-averse investor may prefer safer, lower-return investments, while a risk-taker might seek higher returns despite the possibility of greater losses.

  • Asset Classes: Investments can be categorized into different asset classes, each with its own risk-return profile. The main asset classes include:
  • Stocks (Equities): Ownership shares in a publicly traded company. They offer the potential for high returns but also come with higher volatility.
  • Bonds (Fixed Income): Debt securities issued by governments, municipalities, or corporations. Bonds typically provide a fixed interest payment and are considered less risky than stocks.
  • Real Estate: Investment in physical properties such as residential or commercial real estate. Real estate investments can generate rental income and appreciate in value over time.
  • Cash Equivalents: Low-risk, highly liquid investments such as savings accounts, certificates of deposit (CDs), or money market funds. While they offer minimal returns, they provide stability and easy access to funds.

2. Diversification:

Diversification is the practice of spreading investments across different asset classes, industries, and geographic regions to reduce risk. By diversifying your portfolio, you can mitigate the impact of poor performance in any single investment and potentially improve overall returns.

3. Portfolio Allocation:

Asset allocation refers to the distribution of investments within a portfolio. It involves determining the appropriate mix of asset classes based on an investor's goals, risk tolerance, and time horizon. A well-balanced portfolio typically includes a combination of stocks, bonds, and other assets tailored to meet the investor's objectives.

4. Market Capitalization:

Market capitalization, or market cap, is the total value of a company's outstanding shares of stock. It is calculated by multiplying the current market price of a single share by the total number of outstanding shares.

5. Dividends:

Dividends are payments made by a corporation to its shareholders as a distribution of profits. Not all companies pay dividends, but those that do often attract income-oriented investors seeking regular income streams. Dividend yield is calculated by dividing the annual dividend per share by the stock's price per share.

6. Risk Management:

Understanding and managing risk is essential for successful investing. In addition to diversification, investors employ various risk management techniques such as setting stop-loss orders to limit potential losses, conducting thorough research before making investment decisions, and maintaining a long-term perspective to ride out market fluctuations.

7. Market Order vs. Limit Order:

When placing a trade, investors can choose between a market order and a limit order. A market order is executed immediately at the current market price, while a limit order allows investors to specify the maximum price they are willing to pay when buying or the minimum price they are willing to accept when selling.

8. Volatility:

Volatility refers to the degree of variation in the price of a financial asset over time. Highly volatile assets experience sharp price fluctuations, while low-volatility assets exhibit more stable price movements. Investors should be aware of volatility when assessing the risk associated with an investment.


Compounding is the process by which an investment generates earnings that are reinvested to generate additional earnings over time. It is often referred to as the "eighth wonder of the world" and can significantly amplify the growth of an investment portfolio, especially when coupled with a long-term investment horizon.

By familiarizing yourself with these basic principles and terms, you can navigate the world of investing with greater confidence and clarity. Remember that investing involves risks, and it's essential to conduct thorough research, seek professional advice when necessary, and stay informed about market developments. With patience, discipline, and a sound investment strategy, you can work towards achieving your financial goals and building long-term wealth.


Avatar 1

Анастасия Ткачева

I like how the author of this blog tries to make universal things understandable to everyone. Now I feel aware!

Avatar 2

Андрей Киселев

A great blog is easy to read, clear and informative. I'll bookmark it!